Story Fourteen - The fortunate ignorant and the unfortunate, Main Story - The prince and his companions. When the cat saw the two approaching he quickly put on the act of a pious, righteous worshipper. Trickery and intelligence are superior to strength. The wilderness is full of wild animals that like to eat mice, and they will do us a lot more harm than do the cats.”, “You’re right about that,” said the king. e il 6° d. C. L’opera originaria, il Tantrākhyayika («Libro di casi di saggezza»), ebbe una recensione più tarda con il Pañcatantra (sanscrito «i cinque libri» o «le cinque dottrine»), dove compaiono i due sciacalli che, nella forma araba KalÄ«la e Dimna, daranno poi il nome alle redazioni successive. Figure 7a-b: Two Illustrations from Kalila wa-Dimna, MS Revan 1022, Herat, 1430: a. Kalila visits the captive Dimna (folio 56a); b. KALILA AND DIMNA or The Panchatantra (also known in Europe since 1481 as The Fables of Bidpai) is a multi-layered, inter-connected and variable arrangement of animal stories, with one story leading into another, sometimes three or four deep.These arrangements have contributed to world literature for over 2000 years, migrating across ancient cultures in a multitude of written and oral formats… The Arabic text is itself an 8th-century translation by Ibn al-Muqaffa' of a Middle Persian version of the Sanskrit Panchatantra from about 300. At the end of the day he walked past the city gates and wrote on them “a cost of a day when one works hard, is one dirham”. His trip to India searching for knowledge. When summer came, the moist grain dried up and shrunk in size. However they told the lion that they would hunt for him. Rushing into things will result in regret. When the man went to sleep, the thief and the devil started arguing over who should take the heifer. Treat others as you would like to be treated. Story Seven - The nobles who should avoid each other', Main Story- The Prince and the bird Fanzah. The monkey told the turtle that they should return, so the monkey could get his heart and gladly give it to the turtle's wife. Story Fifteen - One who advises others but not himself, Main Story - The pigeon, the fox and the heron. The prince and the chick grew up together as friends. Sub-story two - The Monkey and the Carpenter - Told by Kalila to Dimnah to discourage him from his plans to get involved with the royal court. The naive man agreed and they buried the case and went their separate ways. When he sees the damage, he will say to himself, ‘Obviously one cat can’t handle all the mice around here! The man became consumed with grief over his hasty decision to kill the weasel. While she was gone, a messenger from the king came and summoned the father immediately. When the court case came, the judge asked for witnesses and warned them all of the punishment in the hereafter if they hid their testimony. Story Four - The person who wastes what he needs. Sub-story five - The snake and the frog - Told by the crow spy to the crow king when asked how he endured staying amongst the enemy for so long. There was once a tree whose hollow trunk was home to a cat and its base was home to the burrow of a rat. It is linked with the wisdom manuals of prince's education through the eastern method of questions and answers between the king and a philosopher that leads to exemplary tales or exempla told by and featuring animals: an ox, a lion and two jackals called Calila and Dimna, which are who tell the majority of the tales. The jackal told her that the action of the horseman was no different to the lioness’ own actions, as her prey also had parents who grieved the loss of their children. The monks hated the king, for he had killed twelve thousand monks. Irakht angered by the criticism, struck her husband on the head with a plate. One day, she left her cubs in their cave and went hunting. There was once a pious man whose prayers were always accepted. People should work together and help each other. There was once a lioness who had two cubs. Story Nine - Forbearance, the most important quality of a ruler. Many hunters often passed the tree and laid their nets nearby, one day the cat got caught in a net while exiting his home. Attempting to harm another through physical confrontation may backfire. Upon summoning the jackal, the jackal claimed he had given the meat to the appointed food person to give to the king. In the 19th century it was translated into Hindustani, thus completing the circle begun 1,700 years before in Kashmir. The merchant replied that he saw a falcon swoop down and take him away the other day. A fellow jackal Rawzbah visited Dimnah in prison and informed him of his brother's passing, to which Dimnah was very bereaved. Again he will decide to get another cat. There was a lion who had three companions, a wolf, a crow and a jackal. Death is inevitable and trying to avoid it may make matters worse. Keller, John Esten, and Robert White Linker. However, sometimes willpower and help from others can be more important. Dimnah was concerned with the king's abandonment of his daily patrol and duties, so he approached the king and calmed him down. Source). He who digs a hole for his brother will ultimately fall into it himself. The jackal advised the crow to steal the jewelry of a human and make a show of throwing it into the snake's burrow. Nothing is more valuable than true friendship. One should examine the pros and cons of a plan before deciding to do it. CACHO BLECUA, Juan Manuel y LACARRA DUCAY, María Jesús. The father, within the tree, started to scream and jumped out of the tree and confessed to the judge the whole plot. In Italy it was one of the first books to appear after the invention of printing. Greed leads to many problems, whereas contentment is very valuable and everlasting. One day a camel left his flock to join the lion, where he stayed for a long time. The rabbit claimed that he was going to present another rabbit as a meal, but that rabbit refused and claimed that he was going to feed himself to the real king of the jungle, another lion. The king would alternate his nights between his wives, one night, while with Irakht, Hawraqnah wore the shimmering beautiful dress and purposefully walked past the king. One day he returned to the crow colony and told them of the owls lair, they had burrows in the mountain side. However the lion claimed that the doctors said one must eat the heart and ears after bathing. The smart fish delayed until the fishermen arrived, but when he tried to leave he was blocked by the nets of the fishermen. The snake then entered the tourists cell and gave him a leaf which was the cure to his own poison and told the tourist to tell the prince his story and he should be freed. A tunnel sat in the mountain's side, from which the seven winds flew out. One advisor told the king of his own personal experience of fate. A carpenter had a pet monkey who watched him work all day. Shatrabah was in awe and fear of the king described to him and obeyed Dimnah's claim of a summons from the king and went back with Dimnah. They made a pact not to eat from the grain until winter, when there would be no food available elsewhere. The three animals told the tourist that if he ever needs any help while passing by their homes he should just call and they would answer. “So what do you think we should do?”, “I can think of only one possible plan. The fables were translated into Arabic in the eighth century by the Persian Ibn al-Muqaffa’, a highly educated writer and influential courtier. Kalila wa-Dimna (Kalila and Dimna) is a widely circulated collection of Oriental fables of Indian origin, composed in Sanskrit possibly as early as the third century BC. There was once a pious man who would pass by the house of a businessman, who would daily give the pious man some fat and honey to eat. There was a lion that ruled a jungle, the occupants gathered together and offered to present the lion an animal a day as an offering, so he would not hunt them. So the next day, he broke out of captivity and followed the deer to the stream and tried to converse with it. Sub-story ten - The sea bird and the sea agent - Told by Dimnah to Shatrabah, while proving his point that a person should not underestimate a weak opponent, Sub-story eleven - The monkeys and the bird - Told by Kalila to Dimnah, after Dimnah ignored all of Kalila's warnings and carried out his plan, which killed the ox and injured the lion, Sub-story one - The mouse and the house of the pious man - Told by the mouse to the bird, while travelling to the jungle, Sub-story four - The pious man, the mouse and the rat - Told by the owl advisor, who wanted to kill the crow, to the crow, to show that you cannot change who you truly are, Sub-story five - The snake and the frog - Told by the crow spy to the crow king, when asked how he endured staying amongst the enemy for so long, Sub-story one - The lion and the donkey - Told by the monkey to the turtle, while scolding him for his stupidity in believing that the monkey could detach his heart. KalÄ«la wa Dimna (arabisch ÙƒÙ„يلة و دمنة Kalila und Dimna) ist die arabische Version eines literarischen Stoffes, dessen Anfänge in die Zeit der Kuschana und Sassaniden in Persien (2. Sub-story of sub-story ten - The Turtle and the two ducks - Told by the female sandpiper to the male sandpiper in an effort to convince him to move the nest. One should not trust the enemy, even if they appear to be friendly and have your best interests at heart. The pious man had then chased him out and cursed him to be the mount of the frog king and that he could only eat the frogs that were gifted to him by the king. Afraid to entrust his kingdom to sons unable to master the most elementary lessons, the king turned over the problem to his wise wazir, and the wazir wrote the Panchatantra, which concealed great practical wisdom in the easily digestible form of animal fables. This structure is used in Don Juan Manuel's Tales of Count Lucanor. (Source). Burzoe returned with a copy of the Panchatantra instead, which he claimed was just as good as the miraculous herb, for it would bestow great wisdom on the reader. (Source). Manuscripts of KalÄ«la wa-Dimna: Their Relation and Redaction Beatrice Gruendler, German Arabist and Professor of Arabic Language and Literature, Freie Universität Berlin. But Shatrabah was skeptical of Dimnah's claims as he knew of no crime that he had committed which could have resulted in such a punishment. He who tries to benefit himself by harming others and via trickery will get his fair recompense. The hoopoe birds decided to tell the advisor of a bag full of gold coins, hidden in a tree. After a while, one day, the crow flew into the air to find his friend, the deer. Then the man will think that he has made a great discovery. He then stopped eating and drinking until he died. Figure 6a-c: Three illustrations from the tradition of Kalila wa-Dimna in manuscripts deposited in the Bodleian Library in London: a. Ibn al-Muqaffa‘s Kalila wa-Dimna in an Arabic manuscript dated 1354 CE; b. Jacob ben Eleazar’s Hebrew translation from the Arabic, with a drawing of a jackal (15th century); c. Directorium humanae vitae: Johannes of Capua’s Latin translation from the Hebrew version of Kalila wa-Dimna (Strasbourg, ca 1489). A clever plan is sometimes superior to plain fighting when trying to solve a problem. Right now in my life as a college student, I know that I must be bold especially in seeking for internship and employment opportunities. But when they realised that the deer was alone they approached him. The people remained so convinced that they were right about the cats that whenever they saw a hole in their clothes, they would say, ‘‘A cat must have gotten into the house last night.” And even when there was an outbreak of disease among men or livestock, they would say, “A cat must have walked through the town last night.” So by this strategem, the mice freed themselves forevermore from their hereditary fear of cats.’. Berolini : Ru¨diger, 1697. The wife insisted on moving their nest to avoid the sea agent, but the husband refused and when the tide came in the sea agent took the nest. However, after entering the house, he found the child was alive and safe, and saw a dead black snake next to the cot, that had been attacked and killed by the weasel. There was once a group of four, a son of a king, a son of a businessman, a handsome son of a nobleman and a son of a farmer. The lion sent a search party to the jackal's house where they found the meat, thereby incriminating the jackal, resulting in him being thrown into jail. There was once a pious jackal who, unlike his fellow brethren and predators, would not spill blood, eat meat or envy his fellows. Once there was a tourist who passed by a well, wherein a jeweller, a monkey, a snake and a tiger had got stuck. There were two sandpipers who were a couple, they had a nest near the sea. Irakht approached her husband and he told her of the interpretation of the dream given by the monks. A romance of the Seven Sages, the Sendebar, was translated likewise through Arabic, … Sub-story ten - The sea bird and the sea agent - Told by Dimnah to Shatrabah while proving his point that a person should not underestimate a weak opponent. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. The tiger went to one of the palace gardens, killed the princess and took her necklace, giving it to the tourist without telling him of its origin. The introduction by Al-Muqaffa, an apology of knowledge and its practice nature. When the egg was ready to hatch, a fox came to the foot of the tree and demanded that the pigeon give him the newborn chick to eat. ‘That’s strange,’ the man will say. When the funeral passed the prince, he was asked why he didn't grieve. A propos de la méthode. Startled, the crow flew off, the mouse went into his hole and the tortoise into his shell. The lion's mother realised that the lion had acted hastily and calmed him down, she told him to investigate properly and not to execute a close friend over some meat! In the last part of the first one (from the first third of the 15th century) it is said that the book "was translated from Arabic to Latin, later it was Romanised by order of don Alfonso in 1261". Syrian manuscript. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris, MS arabe 3465, folio 57. The mother visited her son the next day and saw how his remorse was eating him up and she scolded him for acting without proper investigation. The guest took the dinars (gold coins) and told the pious man that the coins allowed the mice to scavenge and so the guest and the man split the money between themselves. The lion then summoned the jackal to defend his own case, but the other ministers sent a rude false reply back to the king, infuriating him. Iladh then approached the king and told him that Irakht was still alive. No votes so far! He would throw olives into the sea to hear the sound of them plopping into the water. Kalila Wa Dimna Manuscript at the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris, Département des manuscrits orientaux. A strong person should not belittle the weak. Cod. comment. When all the pigeons were trapped, they all tried to save themselves and fly away, but they were stuck. The elephant looked at the pond and saw the reflection of the moon and how the moon seemed to tremble with rage when he tried to drink from it, and he prostrated to the moon and repented. Certain people understand situations better as an onlooker and fail to come up with solutions when they experience it themselves. Workshop 3: The Arabic Versions of KalÄ«la wa-Dimna Monday, July 27 (4:00 pm Berlin, 5:00 pm Amman, 10:00 am New York) Moderated by Matthew L. Keegan. [13] According to its own narrative, it illustrates, for the benefit of three ignorant princes, the central Hindu principles of nÄ«ti. The bird refused to listen to the man and flew to the monkeys to convince them, but they got angry and grabbed the bird and threw him to the ground, killing him. The story I have selected is not included in the original Sanskrit version, nor in most Arabic manuscripts of Ibn al-Mukaffa’, but it is of interest because it has entered European folklore as the story known as “Belling the Cats,” which can be found in the Brothers Grimm and many other places. The male sandpiper decided to call upon the king of the birds, the phoenix, for help, which he received. Dimnah, knowing the plan would be unravelled if they were allowed to talk, told the lion that if Shatrabah's limbs were trembling and if he was moving his horns as if preparing to charge, then there was no doubt regarding his treason. Story Six - The person who befriends his enemies to save himself, Story Seven - The nobles who should avoid each other, Sub-story one - The king on the banks of the Nile - Told by the rat king's advisor to the king to warn of the consequences of carrying out a bad plan, Story Fourteen - The fortunate ignorant and the unfortunate wiseman. When he gets rid of the third cat, we will stop our destruction completely. The monks said they would return with the interpretation in a week. Figure 1: Victor and Cheek in Kalila wa-Dimna. Calila e Dimna's story. When he returned and asked for his iron, his friend said that mice had eaten all of it. The argument ended in each of them calling out to the pious man that the other is trying to steal the heifer. Some plans may be detrimental to the plotter and he may end up worse off. Then a flea visited one day and went with the louse to drink the blood of the richman, but when the flea bit the man, he ran away and the man woke up. Instead, we will concentrate on damaging his clothes, beds, and carpets. Upon hearing this the friend confessed to selling the iron and gave the merchant the money so that he may return his child. “What do you think about that idea?”. While the heron displayed this, the fox attacked the heron and killed it, all the while mocking the heron for providing the pigeon with a trick, but not being smart enough to avoid the fox's trick. Manuscript dated circa 1200 CE, Syria. A group of people saw the goat and wanted it, so they hatched a plan to deceive the pious man. Not all versions were simple translations. Sub-story two - The pious man and the goats - Told by the fifth crow advisor to the king to prove that trickery is superior to war. The lion had a court of many animals and predators but had never heard the wailing of an ox. When the male pigeon saw the reduced grain, he accused the wife of eating from it and pecked her to death, while she swore she didn't. So he took up residence in an olive tree on the coast. Sub-story one - The crane and the crow - Told by the fifth crow advisor to the king regarding the origin of the hostility between the owls and the crows. The next day the son of the nobleman went into the city and sat down under a tree and fell asleep. The Panchatantra is an inter-woven series of colourful fables, many of which involve animals exhibiting animal stereotypes. The king frog, eager to ride the snake to show off his status, took the snake's word and made him his mount, and would feed the snake two frogs daily. Donec at molestie tellus. The lioness upon hearing this, changed her ways and became a vegetarian and would only eat fruits and would spend most of her day in worship. Some plans can cause irreversible and heavy damage, and leave you worse off. One should adopt any good counsel he receives. After that, he would trade the goats for a herd of cows and buy land for them to graze on and he would use their milk. The prince sat by the gates of the city and waited. One day, when the jar became full the pious man lay down thinking about his future. The donkey was convinced that it was the presence of the owner that was preventing them from conversing, so he attacked and bit the owner. [14] While nÄ«ti is hard to translate, it roughly means prudent worldly conduct, or "the wise conduct of life". One night, he saw eight dreams that frightened him, so he called the monks to interpret the dreams. Slanderers should be dealt with severely as a deterrent to others. The people who had visited the prince's land in the gathering recognised him and supported his claim. Sub-story one of sub-story one - The rabbits and the elephants - Told by the crow to the cranes in an attempt to dissuade them from appointing the owl their leader. The other members of the lion's court grew jealous of the pious jackal and they all agreed to get the jackal in trouble. The guest dug a hole trying to find the mouse but found a case full of a hundred dinars (gold coins). The king in his rage issued the execution of the jackal. Now there was a mouse in that city called Mahraz, and he ruled over all the other mice in the city and in the surrounding countryside. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. However the crow persisted and swore not to eat until the mouse becomes his friend. If he gives in charity, he is wasteful. The jackal concerned for the lion and his own well being asked the lion what could be done. So the crow took the mouse by the tail and flew him to the jungle. One of the most popular books ever written is the book the Arabs know as Kalila wa Dimna, a bestseller for almost two thousand years, and a book still read with pleasure all over the Arab world.. Kalila and Dimna was originally written in Sanskrit, probably in Kashmir, some time in the fourth century A.D. The sounds of his wails reached the ears of the lion king who ruled the area. The crow rose in status amongst the owls and learned their secrets. Calila e Dimna is an Old Castilian collection of tales from 1251, translated from the Arabic text Kalila wa-Dimna by the order of the future King Alfonso X while he was still a prince. This often happens to those who plot and deceive to reach their goals, without caring about the consequences it will have on others. The jackal, assuming the task to be simple, approached a captured donkey and offered it freedom from man if it followed him home, where the jackal claimed lived many other wild donkeys. The city enjoyed many natural advantages and its people were prosperous and could afford to enjoy themselves however they liked. He’ll say: ‘It’s not the mice that damage food and clothes, but cats.’ He will run to tell his neighbors, and because he is a rich and respected man in the town, they will all believe him and throw their cats out of doors, or kill them, and forever after, whenever they see a cat, they will chase it and kill it.”. The prince was summoned and told the people of his ancestry and lineage and how his brother had usurped the throne after their father's demise, so he had fled the city. $801.77. LACARRA DUCAY, María Jesús (ed., prólogo y notas), This page was last edited on 25 October 2020, at 18:20. Lion attacking a Bull (folio 46b). The advisor, intent on carrying out his deed, gave up bargaining and purchased the two malnutritioned birds for two dinars. Meanwhile, a leopard from amongst the closest members of the king's court was prowling in the dark, when he came upon Kalila admonishing Dimnah for his deception and he overheard the whole thing. Story Eleven - The benefit and importance of having a wise advisor, Main Story - Mihrayiz the king of the rats. (Source). When the lion confronted the ox, they each saw the other exactly as Dimnah had described and so launched themselves at each other. In my opinion, we should emigrate from the city and dwell in the country for a year until the people of the city think that they can dispense with the cats who are eating them out of house and home. There was once a lion who had a jackal companion who would feed off his leftovers. While in prison, he was visited by his brother Kalila who reminded him of his earlier warnings to not carry out his plot. Kalîla wa Dimna est l’un des textes les plus connus de la littérature arabe médiévale et compte parmi les plus illustrés du monde islamique. The mother suspected the other ministers and soon enough they came forward and confessed to their deception. The next time the fox came, the pigeon acted on the heron's advice. Sub-story one - The pious man, the fat and the honey - Told by the wife to the husband, not to tempt fate by declaring the unborn baby a boy, as it is something beyond his knowledge. The lion told him that the doctors say the only cure is the ears and heart of a donkey. The group was in need and had nothing but the clothes on their backs. Main Story - The pious man and the weasel. After being saved and taken to the village he decided to rest for a while in an empty hut on the outskirts of the village, however to his surprise he entered upon a group of bandits distributing their loot. In a fit of rage, assuming that the weasel had killed his precious baby, he whacked the weasel on the head with a stick and killed it. Kalila tried to dissuade Dimnah of his plans, but was rebuffed by Dimnah's ambition. The mouse was wary and hostile to a known predator. The man left the baby with the weasel and went to the king. The king had three advisors, Rudhbadh, Shira’ and Baghdad. It is imperative that one investigates any information he may receive, to ensure its credibility. Chr.) After much toil and effort the people succeeded in blocking the hole. Six months had not passed and all the springs and crops had dried up, all the animals had died and a barren wasteland was left for hundreds of miles. Then we will all get inside the tunnel, but we will not touch any of the man’s food. Kalila wa Dimna. In a land where mice eat iron, falcons also kidnap children!”. When a problem arises between two friends and resentment stays, it is best to avoid each other. Sub-story of sub-story five - The toad and the crab - Told by the jackal to the crow as a warning that sometimes plans fail and have bad endings. However, the snake would eat the eggs of the crow. Realisation struck the man, that his best friend, the weasel, had protected his child from the snake, and that the blood was the blood of the snake. Story Six - The person who befriends his enemies to save. The crow was intrigued by the walking style of the partridge and spent a long time trying to copy it. Through Kalila and Dimna I have taken away this knowledge, and I believe that it will help me throughout the rest of my life. An onlooking bird knew that it was a glow worm and not fire and so called out to them to stop their futile chase, as it would not give them the warmth they desired. And then we will increase the damage threefold. Words have consequences and we must be careful and think of the consequences of how we use our tongues. The tourist decided to help them out of good will. The mouse intended on taking the money while the man slept, so as to make friends again, but every time he tried, he failed and was hit. They told the king he must kill his wife Irakht, his child Juwayr, his nephew, his close friend Iladh, his scribe and secret keeper Kaal, his great white elephant, his battle horse, two other great elephants, his fast strong Bactrian camel and the wiseman Kabariyoon, who was responsible for the death of the monks. One day, the advisor took the two dinars and went to the market with the intention of giving one in charity and keeping the other. The man only saw the louse and so killed the louse out of anger and pain. Figure 1: Victor and Cheek in Kalila wa-Dimna. The crow tried to explain that sometimes sacrifices must be made for the greater good, and the lion stayed silent and that was the sign of his acceptance. The leader of the pigs tried to defame Dimnah, but Dimnah skilfully talked his way out and managed to avoid any further scandal. The tourist, very happy by the treatment received from the animals, intended on approaching the jeweller. 18-21 (read online here). There was once a king, who ruled near the Nile. The cat tried to call him in an attempt to reward him for freeing him, but the rat stayed cautious and would not approach the cat. The turtle overjoyed by his friends commitment, swam back to the olive tree, whereupon the monkey quickly scrambled ashore and up his tree. Meanwhile, the other mice approached the mouse for their normal supply of food, but he didn't have any, so they shunned him and left him alone. The weak can team up and use their intelligence to defeat the enemy. Fanzah had a chick and the queen gave birth to a prince. All Rights Reserved. Dimnah told the ox that if the lion approaches you with his chest out and mouth open, then know he has come to kill you. Kalila Wa Dimna - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. If it was public, he should announce his error to clear the reputation of the falsely judged. During Dimnah's spell in prison, Kalila fell ill out of grief and guilt and died. À l’origine, ces fables animalières, tirées d’une épopée fondatrice de la civilisation indienne – le Pantchatantra –, auraient été écrites en sanskrit, vers 200, par un brahmane inconnu, équivalent d’Ésope pour la tradition indienne, puis traduites en persan et, au VI e siècle, en syriaque. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. But when he tried to walk like a crow again, he could not do it properly and so he gained the worse walk of any bird.