Many of the new buildings built during this era followed a straight-lined, geometrical style. Because of the Nazis' narrow majority in the Reichstag, Centre's support was necessary to receive the required two-thirds majority vote. No single reason can explain the failure of the Weimar Republic. The term "Weimar Republic" refers to the city of Weimar, where the republic's constituent assembly first took place. in June 1922, who had been defamed as compliant "Erfüllungspolitiker" [de][b] with regard to the Treaty of Versailles. Hans von Seeckt, the head of the Reichswehr, declared that the army was not loyal to the democratic republic, and would only defend it if it were in their interests. After the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were officially altered to reflect the political changes. The Freikorps was an army outside the control of the government, but they were in close contact with their allies in the Reichswehr. [64], In the debate prior to the vote on the Enabling Act, Hitler orchestrated the full political menace of his paramilitary forces like the storm division in the streets to intimidate reluctant Reichstag deputies into approving the Enabling Act. Conservatives and reactionaries feared that Germany was betraying its traditional values by adopting popular styles from abroad, particularly those Hollywood was popularising in American films, while New York became the global capital of fashion. ... Si ses chances de réussite étaient faibles, la République de Weimar n'était pas non plus irrémédiablement vouée à l'échec, selon l'auteur. To further undermine the Republic's credibility, some right-wingers (especially certain members of the former officer corps) also blamed an alleged conspiracy of Socialists and Jews for Germany's defeat in the First World War. Schleicher planned for a sort of labour government under his Generalship. En raison des circonstances exceptionnelles, il est désigné par l'Assemblée et ne sera jamais légitimé par le suffrage universel comme le prévoit la Constitution de Weimar. On 9 November 1918, the "German Republic" was proclaimed by MSPD member Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building in Berlin, to the fury of Friedrich Ebert, the leader of the MSPD, who thought that the question of monarchy or republic should be answered by a national assembly. On the one hand, this agreement symbolised the acceptance of the new government by the military, assuaging concern among the middle classes; on the other hand, it was thought contrary to working-class interests by left wing social democrats and communists, and was also opposed by the far right who believed democracy would make Germany weaker. In this time, the radical left-wing parties, including the USPD and KPD, were barely able to get themselves organised, leading to a solid majority of seats for the MSPD moderate forces. In 1926, about 2 million Germans were unemployed, which rose to around 6 million in 1932. His long-term view was that deflation would, in any case, be the best way to help the economy. [citation needed]. Even Stresemann's 'German People's party' failed to gain nationwide recognition, and instead featured in the 'flip-flop' coalitions. Découvrez toutes nos lettres déjà parues. Gustav Noske, a self-appointed military expert in the MSPD, was sent to Kiel to prevent any further unrest and took on the task of controlling the mutinous sailors and their supporters in the Kiel barracks. This date, dubbed by the Nazis as the Machtergreifung (seizure of power), is commonly seen as the beginning of Nazi Germany. Dans le même temps se réunit à Weimar une Assemblée nationale, majoritairement constituée de députés socialistes, démocrates ou catholiques (Zentrum). Date of birth/death: ... le chancelier du Reich Constantin Fehrenbach et les membres de gouvernement sont en train de faire acclamer la république. In addition, a supplementary directive of December 1918 specified that female (and child) workers were entitled to a fifteen-minute break if they worked between four and six hours, thirty minutes for workdays lasting six to eight hours, and one hour for longer days. Therefore, Hitler refused ministry under Papen, and demanded the chancellorship for himself, but was rejected by Hindenburg on 13 August 1932. Hitler named himself as chairman of the party in July 1921. However, he also drew right-wing extremist hatred as a Jew (see also Weimar antisemitism). Ils apprennent à vivre avec elle mais n’y adhèrent pas. The highly publicised rhetoric of 1919 about paying for all the damages and all the veterans' benefits was irrelevant for the total, but it did determine how the recipients spent their share. Between 1919 and 1933, there was no single name for the new state that gained widespread acceptance and is the reason why the old name Deutsches Reich remained, although hardly anyone used it during the Weimar period. Once the economic situation had stabilised, Stresemann could begin putting a permanent currency in place, called the Rentenmark (October 1923), which again contributed to the growing level of international confidence in the Weimar Republic's economy. It may have been doomed from the beginning since even moderates disliked it and extremists on both the left and right loathed it, a situation often referred to as a "democracy without democrats". [37] Art and a new type of architecture taught at "Bauhaus" schools reflected the new ideas of the time, with artists such as George Grosz being fined for defaming the military and for blasphemy. The 1920s saw a remarkable cultural renaissance in Germany. At the end of 1933, Mecklenburg-Strelitz was merged with Mecklenburg-Schwerin to form a united Mecklenburg. Hitler used the provisions of the Enabling Act to pre-empt possible opposition to his dictatorship from other sources, in which he was mostly successful. Prior to the First World War, the constituent states of the German Empire were 22 smaller monarchies, three republican city-states and the Imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine. [18], A number of other reforms were carried out in Germany during the revolutionary period. Des milliers de professeurs, d’industriels, d’hommes politiques détestaient les nazis mais n’aimaient pas la République. In 1949 the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) adopted all three signs of Weimar Republic—Reichswappen, Reichsschild and Reichsflagge—as Bundeswappen, Bundesschild and Bundesflagge[14] (Federal coat of arms, escutcheon and flag). As more of the working and middle classes turned against Brüning, however, more of the capitalists and landowners declared themselves in favour of his opponents Hitler and Hugenberg. Le 6 février 1919, trois mois après l'armistice qui a mis fin à la Grande Guerre (1914-1918), une Assemblée constituante allemande se réunit dans le théâtre de Weimar, la ville de Goethe et Schiller, illustres représentants de l'âme allemande ! Hitler learned from Papen that the general had not received from Hindenburg the authority to abolish the Reichstag parliament, whereas any majority of seats did. Led by Ebert for the MSPD and Hugo Haase for the USPD it sought to act as a provisional cabinet of ministers. Ce sera la fin de la République de Weimar. Hitler also pledged to protect the Catholic confessional schools and to respect the concordats signed between the Holy See and Bavaria (1924), Prussia (1929) and Baden (1931). The four great political movements, the SPD, Communists, Centre, and the Nazis were in opposition. The uprising was brutally attacked by Freikorps, which consisted mainly of ex-soldiers dismissed from the army and who were well-paid to put down forces of the Far Left. The Weimar Republic retained the Reichsadler, but without the symbols of the former Monarchy (Crown, Collar, Breast shield with the Prussian Arms). The proclamation was issued by Karl Liebknecht, co-leader (with Rosa Luxemburg) of the communist Spartakusbund (Spartacus League), a group of a few hundred supporters of the Russian revolution that had allied itself with the USPD in 1917. To centrist and conservative citizens, the country looked to be on the verge of a communist revolution. Allemagne -- Politique et gouvernement -- 1918-1933. The ensuing street fighting left several dead and injured on both sides. In 1929, three years after receiving the 1926 Nobel Peace Prize, Stresemann died of a heart attack at age 51. The regular army and the Freikorps ended the uprising on their own authority. Friedrich Ebert initially declared the official German coat of arms to be a design by Emil Doepler (shown in the first infobox above) as of 12 November 1919, following a decision of the German government.[14]. The democratic parties obtained a solid 80% of the vote. It effectively ended military operations between the Allies and Germany. [20], With the Verordnung of 3 February 1919, the Ebert government reintroduced the original structure of the health insurance boards according to an 1883 law, with one-third employers and two-thirds members (i.e. Ludendorff and Hitler declared that the Weimar government was deposed and that they were planning to take control of Munich the following day. Régime de Weimar (Allemagne, 1919-1933) Allemagne. [5] After a bill to reform the Reich's finances was opposed by the Reichstag, it was made an emergency decree by Hindenburg. workers). It empowered the cabinet to legislate without the approval of the Reichstag or the President, and to enact laws that were contrary to the constitution. Allemagne -- 1918-1933 (République de Weimar) Allemagne -- Histoire -- 1918-1933. The republicans took up the idea of the German Coat of Arms established by the Paulskirche movement, using the same charge animal, an eagle, in the same colours (black, red and gold), but modernising its form, including a reduction of the heads from two to one. It introduced the eight-hour workday, domestic labour reform, works councils, agricultural labour reform, right of civil-service associations, local municipality social welfare relief (split between Reich and States) and national health insurance, reinstatement of demobilised workers, protection from arbitrary dismissal with appeal as a right, regulated wage agreement, and universal suffrage from 20 years of age in all types of elections—local and national. Hitler was arrested and sentenced to five years in prison for high treason, a minimum sentence for the charge. The Reichstag convened on 23 March 1933, and in the midday opening, Hitler made a historic speech, appearing outwardly calm and conciliatory. A Soviet republic was declared in Munich, but was quickly put down by Freikorps and remnants of the regular army. [24] In addition, undemocratic public institutions were abolished, involving, as noted by one writer, the disappearance "of the Prussian Upper House, the former Prussian Lower House that had been elected in accordance with the three-class suffrage, and the municipal councils that were also elected on the class vote".[25]. [16][17][14] The Reichswehr adopted the new Reichswappen in 1927. They wanted a renewed Germany and a new organisation of German society. On 29 March 1930, after months of lobbying by General Kurt von Schleicher on behalf of the military, the finance expert Heinrich Brüning was appointed as Müller's successor by Reichspräsident Paul von Hindenburg. Other rebellions were put down in March 1921 in Saxony and Hamburg. From November 1918 to January 1919, Germany was governed by the "Council of the People's Deputies", under the leadership of Ebert and Haase. Instead, the struggles induced by the First World War persisted for the decade following. This was the last multi-party election of the Weimar Republic and the last multi-party all-German election for 57 years. À la mort du président Ebert, en 1925, le vieux maréchal Paul von Hindenburg (78 ans) est élu à sa succession au suffrage universel. He now blamed Germany's problems on the Communists, even threatening their lives on 3 March. High unemployment led to the collapse of the coalition government and from March 1930 various chancellors ruled through emergency powers granted by the President. By early February, a mere week after Hitler's assumption of the chancellorship, the government had begun to clamp down on the opposition. That was made apparent when political parties on both right and left wanting to disband the Republic altogether made any democratic majority in Parliament impossible. On 15 March, the first cabinet meeting was attended by the two coalition parties, representing a minority in the Reichstag: The Nazis and the DNVP led by Alfred Hugenberg (288 + 52 seats).