The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the constitution of 1812. The first circumnavigation of the world was carried out in 1519–1521. Almost every aspect of Spanish life is permeated by its Roman heritage, making Spain one of the major Latin countries of Europe. [169], The automotive industry is one of the largest employers in the country. [272] Spain's National Day (Fiesta Nacional de España) is celebrated on 12 October, the anniversary of the Discovery of America and commemorate Our Lady of the Pillar feast, patroness of Aragon and throughout Spain. The most notable were Miguel Servet, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Narcís Monturiol, Celedonio Calatayud, Juan de la Cierva, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, Margarita Salas and Severo Ochoa. Since the 1990s some Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America. On 1 January 2002, Spain fully adopted the euro, and Spain experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during the early 2000s. The Napoleonic conflict in Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable. The subsequent War of the Pyrenees polarised the country in a reaction against the gallicised elites and following defeat in the field, peace was made with France in 1795 at the Peace of Basel in which Spain lost control over two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola. Having conquered these, they turned their arms against the Byzantines, who treacherously slew their leaders; but for this treachery, the Spaniards, under Bernard of Rocafort and Berenguer of Entenca, exacted the terrible penalty celebrated in history as "The Catalan Vengeance" and seized the Frankish Duchy of Athens (1311). The County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon entered in a dynastic union and gained territory and power in the Mediterranean. Among the countries studied by Pew Research Center in 2013, Spain is rated first in acceptance of homosexuality, with 88% of those surveyed saying that homosexuality should be accepted.[132]. Most are arrivals in the past century, while some are descendants of earlier Spanish Jews. Spain's capitalist mixed economy is the 14th largest worldwide and the 5th largest in the European Union, as well as the Eurozone's 4th largest. [185], Non-renewable energy sources used in Spain are nuclear (8 operative reactors), gas, coal, and oil. immigrants, ex-pats and refugees, without including foreign born nationals with Spanish citizenship) permanently living in Spain was estimated to be at 5,235,375 (11.06%) in 2020. If you enjoyed listening to this one, maybe you will like: 1. Estimates are from the following sources: the "Functional Urban Areas" (FUAs) of the Study on Urban Functions of the European Spatial Planning Observation Network (ESPON, 2007); the "Larger Urban Zone" (LUZs) of Urban Audit project (2004), supported by the European Union. Since 2006, the Mobile World Congress has taken place in Barcelona. Basques occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountain range and adjacent areas, the Phoenician-influenced Tartessians culture flourished in the southwest and the Lusitanians and Vettones occupied areas in the central west. [104] As prime minister, he continued to implement austerity measures required by the EU Stability and Growth Pact. It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or autonomous community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal. The Society of Jesus was co-founded by Ignatius of Loyola, whose Spiritual Exercises and movement led to the establishment of hundreds of colleges and universities in the world, including 28 in the United States alone. Depending on the nature of the crop, it was possible to harvest two successive crops in the same year on about 10% of the country's irrigated land. [citation needed]. Germana de Foix also finished with the revolt in the Mediterranean. [233], In 2008, the government instituted a "Plan of Voluntary Return" which encouraged unemployed immigrants from outside the EU to return to their home countries and receive several incentives, including the right to keep their unemployment benefits and transfer whatever they contributed to the Spanish Social Security. [187] The former Minister of Industry Miguel Sebastián said that "the electric vehicle is the future and the engine of an industrial revolution."[188]. The Spanish considered the war with the Muslims of Brunei and the Philippines, a repeat of the Reconquista. Top 250 from United States. Particularly noteworthy was the development in Almería—one of the most arid and desolate provinces of Spain—of winter crops of various fruits and vegetables for export to Europe. Espagne - Volume 17 Issue 199. Europcar in Spain. YouTube Popular Countries. The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados), a lower house with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and the Senate (Senado), an upper house with 259 seats of which 208 are directly elected by popular vote, using a limited voting method, and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms. The king left the country and the proclamation of the Republic on 14 April ensued, with the formation of a provisional government. World Health Organisation, World Health Staff, (2000), Haden, Angela; Campanini, Barbara, eds., The world health report 2000 – Health systems: improving performance (PDF), Geneva: World Health Organisation, Prime Minister (President of the Government), the Kingdom of Portugal was also ruled by the Hapsburg Dynasty, fourteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, retroversion of the sovereignty to the people, 1932 failed coup d'état led by José Sanjurjo, under the authority of the Republican government, Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS, Spanish society after the democratic transition, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, List of Spanish autonomous communities by population, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Fiestas of International Tourist Interest of Spain, Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain, "Acuerdo entre el Reino de España y Nueva Zelanda sobre participación en determinadas elecciones de los nacionales de cada país residentes en el territorio del otro, hecho en Wellington el 23 de junio de 2009", "Real Decreto 1560/1997, de 10 de octubre, por el que se regula el Himno Nacional", "Anuario estadístico de España 2008. [148], Another claim by Spain is about the Savage Islands, part of Portugal. The constitution also establishes that "the other Spanish languages"—that is, the other languages of Spain—will also be official in their respective autonomous communities in accordance to their Statutes, their organic regional legislations, and that the "richness of the distinct linguistic modalities of Spain represents a patrimony which will be the object of special respect and protection."[239]. The busiest one is the airport of Madrid (Barajas), with 50 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 15th busiest airport, as well as the European Union's fourth busiest. [13][18] There have been a number of accounts and hypotheses of its origin: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". In the 19th and 20th centuries, science in Spain was held back by severe political instability and consequent economic underdevelopment. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4, – in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green). Along the Pyrenees in Girona, a small exclave town called Llívia is surrounded by France. The Spanish State is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities, both groups being the highest or first-order administrative division in the country. Spain has the most extensive high-speed rail network in Europe, and the second-most extensive in the world after China. The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive autonomy, with their own parliaments and regional governments. Spain's 16th-century maritime supremacy was demonstrated by the victory over the Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571, and then after the setback of the Spanish Armada in 1588, in a series of victories against England in the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604. Meat production for domestic consumption became the single most important agricultural activity, accounting for 30% of all farm-related production in 1983. The Spanish Constitution of 1978, in its second article, recognises several contemporary entities—nationalities—[m] and regions, within the context of the Spanish nation. l devine sad songs; 58-30 7 michael gray feat. The Spanish country code and Spain area code chart below gives you the necessary information for calling Spanish cities. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes it a de facto member of the group.[17]. 24/7 … [64][65][66], The year 1492 also marked the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World, during a voyage funded by Isabella. The Prime Minister, deputy prime ministers and the rest of ministers convene at the Council of Ministers. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. Only a small area in the mountainous north-west of the peninsula managed to resist the initial invasion. Top Cable is an international electric cable manufacturer. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BC, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania. For international dialing instructions to Spain, use our drop down boxes at the top of this page or check out our easy-to-use country code search tool. Ecouter. Thousands of music fans also travel to Spain each year for internationally recognised summer music festivals Sónar which often features the top up and coming pop and techno acts, and Benicàssim which tends to feature alternative rock and dance acts. Actresses Sara Montiel and Penélope Cruz or actor Antonio Banderas are among those who have become Hollywood stars. The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht, in which Spain ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown[142] stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain first. El Desastre (the Disaster), as the war became known in Spain, gave added impetus to the Generation of '98 who were analyzing the country. International Film Festivals of Valladolid and San Sebastian are the oldest and more relevant in Spain. The only legal party under Franco's dictatorship was the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS (FET y de las JONS), formed in 1937 upon the merging of the Fascist Falange Española de las JONS and the Carlist traditionalists and to which the rest of right-wing groups supporting the rebels also added. [121] After a national referendum on 6 December 1978, 88% of voters approved of the new constitution - a culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. Spain is a transcontinental country, having territory in both Europe and Africa. [25][28] Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the Iberian Peninsula acted as one of several major refugia from which northern Europe was repopulated following the end of the last ice age. According to residence permit data for 2011, more than 860,000 were Romanian, about 770,000 were Moroccan, approximately 390,000 were British, and 360,000 were Ecuadorian. Not all cities were included in this survey. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered (711–718) by largely Moorish Muslim armies from North Africa. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged". In the field of classical music, Spain has produced a number of noted composers such as Isaac Albéniz, Manuel de Falla and Enrique Granados and singers and performers such as Plácido Domingo, José Carreras, Montserrat Caballé, Alicia de Larrocha, Alfredo Kraus, Pablo Casals, Ricardo Viñes, José Iturbi, Pablo de Sarasate, Jordi Savall and Teresa Berganza. The Kingdom of Castile, formed from Leonese territory, was its successor as strongest kingdom. [168] The Basque capital city of Vitoria-Gasteiz received the European Green Capital Award in 2012. Its sovereignty is disputed between Spain and Morocco. Euro Top Chart è la hit parade del momento con le canzoni di maggior successo da tutta Europa. [232] In 2008, prior to the onset of the economic crisis, the Financial Times reported that Spain was the most favoured destination for Western Europeans considering a move from their own country and seeking jobs elsewhere in the EU. King Ferdinand VII's attempt to re-assert control proved futile as he faced opposition not only in the colonies but also in Spain and army revolts followed, led by liberal officers. These include the landscape of Monte Perdido in the Pyrenees, which is shared with France, the Prehistoric Rock Art Sites of the Côa Valley and Siega Verde, which is shared with Portugal, the Heritage of Mercury, shared with Slovenia and the Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests, shared with other countries of Europe. Top 500 YouTube Channels. Rent a holiday accomodation for short and long term stay on Bookabach. In some cases some of the territorial identities may conflict with the dominant Spanish culture. Appendix 1: Profiles for Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands & Gibraltar", "La cuestión de Olivenza, a la luz del Derecho internacional público", "Article 62 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978", "El jefe del Estado Mayor del Ejército de Tierra y 11 tenientes generales aspiran a JEMAD", "Article 8 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978", "Youth unemployment rate in EU member states as of March 2018", Spain's Black Market Economy Is Worth 20% of Its GDP: One million Spanish people have jobs in the underground economy, "Spain's Iberdrola signs investment accord with Gulf group Taqa", "The Economist Intelligence Unit's quality-of-life index", "Spain posts record number of 82 million inbound tourists in 2017", "Spain Is World's Leader in Solar Energy", "Spain's Bilbao fights to lead European wind power sector", "Spain becomes the first European wind energy producer after overcoming Germany for the first time", "Asociación Empresarial Eólica – Spanish Wind Energy Association – Energía Eólica", "La eólica supera por primera vez la mitad de la producción eléctrica", "Wind power in Spain breaks new instantaneous power record", "14 reactores nucleares movidos por el viento", "Algae Based Biofuels in Plain English: Why it Matters, How it Works. The violent acts during this period included the burning of churches, the 1932 failed coup d'état led by José Sanjurjo, the Revolution of 1934 and numerous attacks against rival political leaders. Spain is the second biggest foreign investor there, after the United States. Top 50 YouTubers. Top 500 YouTube Channels. That same year, Spain's Jews were ordered to convert to Catholicism or face expulsion from Spanish territories during the Spanish Inquisition. With the government budget in balance and inflation under control Spain was admitted into the Eurozone in 1999. An important philosopher from this time is Ramon Llull. Log In. While varieties of football have been played in Spain as far back as Roman times, sport in Spain has been dominated by football since the early 20th century. [11] Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. [223] The Spanish government is offering Spanish nationality to Sephardi Jews. [111] No country recognised Catalonia as a separate state. This is a list of the largest metropolitan areas in Spain by population. Linked trade union to this party, Unión General de Trabajadores, was founded in 1888. Some of them are known worldwide, and millions of tourits from all over the world go to Spain annually to experience one of these festivals. The peninsula of Vélez de la Gomera is also regarded as a plaza de soberanía. Their Commander-in-chief is the King of Spain, Felipe VI. Dossier. An important provincial city founded by the Romans and with an extensive Roman era infrastructure, Córdoba became the cultural capital, including fine Arabic style architecture, during the time of the Islamic Umayyad dynasty. Vacation rentals available for short and long term stay on Vrbo Canada. UEFA.com is the official site of UEFA, the Union of European Football Associations, and the governing body of football in Europe. St. Augustine became a strategic defensive base for Spanish ships full of gold and silver sailing to Spain. Top 100 YouTube Channels. Accueil > Charts > Top Titres iTunes en Espagne (Spain) Classement des titres les plus téléchargés sur iTunes. The highest point in Spain is the Teide, a 3,718-metre (12,198 ft) active volcano in the Canary Islands. In the 1960s, Jesuits Pedro Arrupe and Ignacio Ellacuría supported the movement of Liberation Theology. Datos provisionales", "Immigrants Fuel Europe's Civilization Clash", "Spanish youth clash with immigrant gangs", "Spain grants amnesty to 700,000 migrants", Spain's Jobs Crisis Leaves Immigrants Out of Work, "The Smooth Transition: Spain's 1978 Constitution and the Nationalities Question", "Junta General del Principado de Asturias", "El semanario alemán Stern retrata la cara más oscura de Mallorca", "Educación Primaria │Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional", "Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)│Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional", "Bachillerato│Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional", "La Formación Profesional actual en el sistema educativo - TodoFP│Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional", "Macrobarómetro de octubre 2019, Banco de datos", "Federación de Entidades Religiosas Evangélicas de España – FEREDE", "Los musulmanes en España superan por primera vez los 2 millones de personas", "Spain at last welcomes back the Sephardim", "10 Most Famous Paintings by Diego Velazquez | Learnodo Newtonic", "Music Festivals, UK Festivals and London Festivals", Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe, autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark, Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spain&oldid=995186459, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, Spanish-speaking countries and territories, States and territories established in 1479, States and territories established in 1715, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Catalan-language text, Articles containing Galician-language text, Articles containing Occitan (post 1500)-language text, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Articles with failed verification from January 2016, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles with failed verification from November 2020, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles needing additional references from May 2020, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Deputy prime ministers (designated by the Prime Minister): Currently.

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