Le 16 février, le ministère de la Propagande publiait un communiqué de presse qui dessinait la ligne générale de la propagande nazie : Dresde n'avait aucune industrie de guerre, n'était qu'une ville de culture et d'hôpitaux. [23][27], Churchill was not satisfied with this answer and on 26 January pressed Sinclair for a plan of operations: "I asked [last night] whether Berlin, and no doubt other large cities in east Germany, should not now be considered especially attractive targets ... Pray report to me tomorrow what is going to be done". The Albertstadt, in the north of Dresden, had remarkable military facilities that the bombings failed to hit. It was beyond belief, worse than the blackest nightmare. The bomber groups were protected by 784 North American P-51 Mustangs of the Eighth Air Force's VIII Fighter Command, for a total almost 2,100 Eighth Army Air Force aircraft over Saxony during 14 February. He then added in an offhand remark that the raid also helped destroy "what is left of German morale." [7] Even after the main firebombing, there were two further raids on the Dresden railway yards by the USAAF. [35] The bombing of Dresden was a Western plan, but the Soviets were told in advance about the operation. Les bombes classiques et à retardement furent aussi utilisées. 47) considéré actuellement comme falsifié[22],[23],[24], une copie[25] de l'original ayant été retrouvée à Dresde par Götz Bergander. Le bombardement de Dresde, dans la partie orientale de l'Allemagne, demeure pour l'Europe le pendant d'Hiroshima et de Nagasaki au Japon: une horreur méthodiquement préparée, organisée et exécutée par ceux qui se présentent encore aujourd'hui comme les «libérateurs». En lien avec les bombardements de la seconde guerre mondiale et les choix stratégiques: Autres bombardements des villes d'Allemagne: Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. In March 1945, the German government ordered its press to publish a falsified casualty figure of 200,000 for the Dresden raids, and death tolls as high as 500,000 have been claimed. Grierson answered that the primary aim was to attack communications to prevent the Germans from moving military supplies, and to stop movement in all directions if possible. L'United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) et la Royal Air Force (RAF) utilisèrent des bombes incendiaires notamment à la thermite[1], l'emploi du phosphore étant lui discuté. [67] The 379th bombardment group started to bomb Dresden at 12:17, aiming at marshalling yards in the Friedrichstadt district west of the city centre, as the area was not obscured by smoke and cloud. Some figures from historians include: 18,000+ (but less than 25,000) from Antony Beevor in "The Second World War"; 20,000 from Anthony Roberts in "The Storm of War"; 25,000 from Ian Kershow in "The End"; 25,000–30,000 from Michael Burleigh in "Moral Combat"; 35,000 from Richard J. Evans in "The Third Reich at War: 1939-1945". Some 45,000 people died on one night during the firestorms that engulfed Hamburg in July 1943.[156]. A party's representative, Jürgen Gansel, described the Dresden raids as "mass murder," and "Dresden's holocaust of bombs". It is now none of these things.[112]. [35], According to the RAF at the time, Dresden was Germany's seventh-largest city and the largest remaining unbombed built-up area. Unusually, the map showing the route to the target was covered by a sheet. Bomb the glow of red TIs as planned". [61] The German sirens sounded again at 01:05, but as there was practically no electricity, these were small hand-held sirens that were heard within only a block. [78] Taylor writes the city was largely undefended; a night fighter force of ten Messerschmitt Bf 110Gs at Klotzsche airfield was scrambled, but it took them half an hour to get into an attack position. The feeling, such as there is, over Dresden, could be easily explained by any psychiatrist. The shape and total devastation of the area was created by the bombers of No. By now, the thousands of fires from the burning city could be seen more than 60 miles (97 km) away on the ground, and 500 miles (800 km) away in the air, with smoke rising to 15,000 feet (4,600 m). At 22:00 hours, the force heading for Böhlen split away from Plate Rack, which turned south east toward the Elbe. [130], The bombing of Dresden has been used by Holocaust deniers and pro-Nazi polemicists—most notably by British writer David Irving in his book The Destruction of Dresden—in an attempt to establish a moral equivalence between the war crimes committed by the Nazi government and the killing of German civilians by Allied bombing raids. So many people were horribly burnt and injured. Frauenkirche: Exceptionnel - consultez 6 542 avis de voyageurs, 3 948 photos, les meilleures offres et comparez les prix pour Dresde, Allemagne sur Tripadvisor. Sixty bombed Prague, dropping 153 tons of bombs, while others bombed Brux and Pilsen. Au cours de la guerre froide, les préjugés idéologiques empêchèrent une étude objective du déroulement des événements. Allégorie de la bonté[45], statue de Peter Pöppelmann (de)[46] sur la tour de l'hôtel de ville de Dresde[47]. archive DRESDE OU LA MÉMOIRE BLESSÉE En deux jours, les 14 et 15 février 1945, RAF et Américains ont lâché 800 000 bombes sur la capitale saxonne. To my left I suddenly see a woman. [51] The attack was to centre on the Ostragehege sports stadium, next to the city's medieval Altstadt (old town), with its congested and highly combustible timbered buildings. The basket with our twins covered with wet cloths was snatched up out of my mother's hands and we were pushed upstairs by the people behind us. Other than deciding on what German territory would be conquered by which power, little time was given to military considerations in the war ag… He claims that Winston Churchill's decision to bomb a shattered Germany between January and May 1945 was a war crime. Selon des estimations, la ville est passée de 630 000 habitants à un regroupement de plus d’un million de personnes à l'époque, un flux de quatre millions de réfugiés de Silésie fuyant notamment sur ordre[19] le front russe allant alors d'est en ouest[20]. The death toll of 135,000 given by Vonnegut was taken from The Destruction of Dresden, a 1963 book by David Irving. Select Your Cookie Preferences. There was talk of mutiny among the Polish pilots, and their British officers removed their side arms. Pour le parti d’extrême droite Alternative pour l'Allemagne (AFD), le nombre officiel de victimes est largement sous-estimé. Des centaines de milliers de réfugiés fuyant l’avance de l’armée rouge affluaient vers Dresde espérant y trouver un peu de sécurité. By this time, ten of the Lancasters were out of service, leaving 244 to continue to Dresden. [109][110], Having been given a paraphrased version of Churchill's memo by Bottomley, on 29 March, Air Chief Marshal Arthur Harris wrote to the Air Ministry:[111], ...in the past we were justified in attacking German cities. In the end, the only political action the German government took was to exploit it for propaganda purposes. Exemple d'école convertie : Vitzthumschule. It became more and more difficult to breathe. (, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 16:07. Dresde 1945 on Amazon.com. D'après Frederick Taylor, le ministère fit gonfler le nombre de morts par un facteur dix[31]. The RAF also had an advantage over the Germans in the field of electronic radar countermeasures. Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. [141] Two-thirds of the remaining population reportedly fled the city after the raids.[142]. [13][14], In the decades since the war, large variations in the claimed death toll have fuelled the controversy, though the numbers themselves are no longer a major point of contention among historians. [140], In late July 1943, the city of Hamburg was bombed in Operation Gomorrah by combined RAF and USAAF strategic bomber forces. Bacchus sur un âne ivre, œuvre de Georg Wrba[48]. Il est possible aussi que les États-Unis et le Royaume-Uni aient voulu impressionner l'URSS : ce bombardement a eu lieu quelques jours après la clôture de la conférence de Yalta, et il aurait eu une force dissuasive sur Staline, dans le contexte naissant de la guerre froide. Le bombardement de Dresde pourrait légitimement reprocher aux Alliés comme crime de guerre. Le bombardement de Dresde par les Alliés, du 13 au 15 février 1945, détruisit la quasi-totalité de la ville. Comme le fut Hiroshima, Tokyo et Nagazaki pour les Japonais 157.193.127.45 5 … We saw the burning street, the falling ruins and the terrible firestorm. Cookies hjælper os desuden med at få overblik over dit besøg på hjemmesiden. Le bombardement de Dresde, qui eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la Directive du ministère de l'air du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942 devenue avec l'USAAF celle de en 1943, détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en Bomber stream. At 21:59 the Local Air Raid Leadership confirmed that the bombers were in the area of Dresden-Pirna. [96], On 25 February, a new leaflet with photographs of two burned children was released under the title "Dresden—Massacre of Refugees," stating that 200,000 had died. One way or another, I got two or three dollars for every person killed. [161], Kurt Vonnegut's novel Slaughterhouse-Five or The Children's Crusade: A Duty-Dance with Death (1969) used some elements from his experiences as a prisoner of war at Dresden during the bombing. Since no official estimate had been developed, the numbers were speculative, but newspapers such as the Stockholm Svenska Morgonbladet used phrases such as "privately from Berlin," to explain where they had obtained the figures. [91] This was largely achievable because most of the dead succumbed to suffocation; in only four places were recovered remains so badly burned that it was impossible to ascertain the number of victims. Bombardement de DRESDE 13-15 février 1945 Movies Preview ... * » du boucher Harris les bombardiers de la Royal Air Force et de l’U.S. ». President Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945), British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (1874-1965) and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin (1878-1953)met at Yalta in the USSR and compromised on their visions of the postwar world. The other groups all bombed Dresden between 12:00 and 12:10. [111] Under pressure from the Chiefs of Staff and in response to the views expressed by Portal and Harris among others, Churchill withdrew his memo and issued a new one. Le tout est disponible sur Internet: ministère allemand des Affaires étrangères, bombardements atomiques d'Hiroshima et Nagasaki, LTI-Lingua Tertii Imperii: Notizbuch eines Philologen, Retour sur la destruction de Dresde du 13-14 février 1945, http://www.memoire-net.org/article.php3?id_article=268, « Historical Analysis of the 14-15 February 1945 Bombings of Dresden », prepared by the USAF Historical Division, Research Studies Institute, 1945, https://web.archive.org/web/20140223032027/http://www.hdot.org/en/trial/judgement/11-7.html, http://www.laplumeagratter.fr/2014/02/13/crimes-de-guerre-13-15-fevrier-1945-dresde-le-plus-grand-bombardement-de-lhistoire-documentaire/, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/heroesvillains/g1/cs3/default.htm, http://www.dresden-dossier1945.de/archivsperrungen.php, http://www.dresden.de/de/leben/stadtportrait/110/ereignisse/03/historikerkommission/02_materialien.php, http://www.kprdd.de/Dresden/Bilder/Rathausturm.htm, http://www.dresden.de/media/pdf/presseamt/Faltblatt_Rathaus.pdf, Directive sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942, Bombardements stratégiques durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Dresde vue de la rive droite de l'Elbe en dessous du pont Auguste, Dresde vue de la rive droite de l'Elbe au-dessus du pont Auguste, Pour tenter d’en finir avec les idées fausses sur Dresde, Opérations aériennes de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Bombardements stratégiques alliés contre les ressources pétrolières de l'Axe, Opérations aériennes pendant la bataille de Normandie, Raids aériens japonais des îles Mariannes, Bombardements atomiques d'Hiroshima et de Nagasaki, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bombardement_de_Dresde&oldid=176345049, Bataille ou opération aérienne de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Massacre ou atrocité de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Article contenant un appel à traduction en allemand, Article contenant un appel à traduction en anglais, Article avec une section vide ou incomplète, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, Page utilisant une présentation en colonnes avec un nombre fixe de colonnes, Portail:Époque contemporaine/Articles liés, Portail:Seconde Guerre mondiale/Articles liés, Portail:Forces armées des États-Unis/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence.