Renaissance Artworks Renaissance Portraits French History Art History Pet Portraits Portrait … Heir to the throne 1260 on the death of his older brother. Get this from a library! [45] Philip's brother, Peter, Count of Perche, who had joined Charles to suppress the rebellion, was killed in Reggio Calabria. ), Les Grandes Chroniques de France : publiées pour la Société de l'Histoire de France par Jules Viard, t. 8 : Philippe III le Hardi, Philippe IV le Bel, Louis X le Hutin, Philippe V le Long, Paris, Librairie ancienne Honoré Champion, 1934, XVI-384 p. (présentation en ligne, lire en ligne). Philip was less successful militarily. [27] His charter in 1283 banned the construction and repair of synagogues and Jewish cemeteries,[28] banned Jews from employing Christians, and sought to restrain Jewish strepiti (chanting too loudly[29]). Philippe II le Hardi - definition of Philippe II le Hardi by The Free Dictionary. [19] In April, Theobald's widow and Philip's sister, Isabella, also died. Philippe III "le Hardi" CAPET, King of France Change Notes. [32] Several years later the Treaty of Amiens (1279) with King Edward I restored Agenais to the English. Louis IX Roi de France. Alternate Formats. [5], Philip's mother Margaret made him promise to remain under her tutelage until the age of 30, however Pope Urban IV released him from this oath on 6 June 1263. Having brought the Crusader army in France driven by his father to Tunis, he inherited in 1271 from the lands of his uncle Alfonso: Poitou and County of Toulouse. He died of fever on the way home. Isabelle d'Aragon Reine de France. In Charles-Victor Langlois. [46] He died without issue and the County of Alençon returned to the royal domain in 1286. Langlois’s work Le Règne de Philippe III le Hardi (1887; “The Reign of Philip III the Bold”), emphasizing the political and institutional conditions of 13th-century France, … The fourth and youngest son of King John II of France and his wife, Bonne of Luxembourg, Philip was the founder of the Burgundian branch of the House of Valois. [48] The war took the name "Aragonese Crusade" from its papal sanction; nevertheless, one historian labelled it "perhaps the most unjust, unnecessary and calamitous enterprise ever undertaken by the Capetian monarchy. Philip III, byname Philip the Bold, French Philippe le Hardi... king of France (1270–85), in whose reign the power of the monarchy was enlarged and the royal domain extended, though his foreign policy and military ventures were largely unsuccessful.... Philip continued his father’s highly successful administration by keeping in office his able and experienced household clerks. and Margaret, daughter of Raymond-Berenger IV., count of Provence, was born on the 3rd of April 1245. For other people, see. Philip III, in French Philippe III, surnamed "the Bold" (le Hardi), King of France, son of Louis IXand Margaret, daughter of Raymond-Bérenger IV, count of Provence, was born on the 3rd of April 1245. 1264–1276. Children (4) Louis of France. [15] His uncle, Charles I of Naples, negotiated with Muhammad I al-Mustansir, Hafsid Caliph of Tunis. In December, in Trapani, Sicily, Philip's brother-in-law, King Theobald II of Navarre, died. [7] His father, Louis, also provided him with advice, writing in particular the Enseignements, which inculcated the notion of justice as the first duty of a king. At the death of his older brother Louis in 1260, he became the heir apparent to the throne. The strong personalities of his parents apparently crushed him, and policies of his father dominated him. [47], Philip, at the urging of his wife, Marie of Brabant, and his uncle, Charles of Naples, launched a war against the Kingdom of Aragon. The French had started a withdrawal when the Aragonese attacked and easily defeated the former at the Battle of the Col de Panissars on 1 October. Following the mos Teutonicus custom, his body was divided in several parts, each buried in different places; the flesh was sent to the Narbonne Cathedral, the entrails to La Noë Abbey in Normandy, his heart to the now-demolished Church of the Couvent des Jacobins in Paris and his bones to Basilica of St Denis, at the time north of Paris.[52]. • Jules Viard (éd. "[49] Philip, accompanied by his sons, entered Roussillon at the head of a large army. He was a member of the House of Capet. The success of the rebellion and invasion led to the coronation of Peter as king of Sicily on 4 September 1282. (1245-1285), surnamed "the Bold" (le Hardi), king of France, son of Louis IX. Charles de Valois Comte de Valois. [34] By 5 June Roger-Bernard had surrendered, was incarcerated at Carcassone,[33] and placed in chains. [37] The treaty indicated that Navarre would be administered from Paris by appointed governors. [34] Philip imprisoned him for a year, but then freed him and restored his lands. He was a candidate for the imperial throne in 1273. The death in 1271 of Alphonse of Poitiers and his wife, heiress of Toulouse, enabled Philip early in his reign to annex their vast holdings to the royal demesne. École nationale des chartes - PSL 36,221 views [23], Philip maintained most of his father's domestic policies. [c][13] To prevent putrefaction of his remains, it was decided to carry out mos Teutonicus, the process of rendering the flesh from the bones so as to make transporting the remains feasible. [38] The Navarrese populace, unhappy with the pro-French treaty and French governors, formed two rebellious factions, one pro-Castilian, the other pro-Aragonese. [21] The next day the funeral of his father was held. Sa statue à Saint-Denis — image d'un roi vigoureux — ne correspond pas au portrait que tracent ses biographes : pieux, peu lettré, il aurait été le jouet de son entourage. Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. In 1284, at the instigation of Pope Martin IV, Philip launched a campaign against Peter III of Aragon, as part of the War of the Sicilian Vespers, in which the Aragonese opposed the Angevin rulers of Sicily. [16] A treaty was concluded 5 November 1270 between the kings of France, Sicily and Navarre and the Caliph of Tunis. Bradbury states it was Philip's distinct policies and how he implemented them that gained him his nickname, Provisional Government of the French Republic, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Philip_III_of_France&oldid=995363858, People of the War of the Sicilian Vespers, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Philip IV of France (1268 – 29 November 1314), his successor, married. (Marie DE BRABANT was born in 1260 in Louvain, Brabant, Belgium, died on 12 Jan 1321 in Murel near Meulan and was buried in Cordelier Convent, Paris, Seine, France.). [37] By May 1276, French governors were traveling throughout Navarre collecting oaths of fealty to the young Queen. Philippe III le Hardi Roi de France. Philip III (1 May 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold[a][b] (French: le Hardi), was king of France from 1270 until his death in 1285. You may have already requested this item. Philippe III le Hardi. 1981-01-23: new. Dante does not name Philip directly, but refers to him as "the small-nosed"[64] and "the father of the Pest of France," a reference to King Philip IV of France. Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, unknown artist, c. 1390s - 1404. Add tags for "Le règne de Philippe III le Hardi". He was consecrated at Notre-Dame de Reims 15 Aug 1271. [53] They had the following children: After the death of Queen Isabella, he married on 21 August 1274 Marie,[53] daughter of the late Henry III, Duke of Brabant, and Adelaide of Burgundy, Duchess of Brabant. 1. Material Type: Biography: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: Gérard Sivéry. A member of the Capetian dynasty, he was born in Poissy, the son of Louis IX of France and of Marguerite Berenger of Provence (1221 - 1295). [40] Despite the revolt being quickly pacified, it was not until the spring of 1277 that the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon renounced their intentions of matrimony. Le Règne de Philippe III le Hardi by Langlois, Charles Victor, 1863-1929. Initially successful, Philip, his army racked with sickness, was forced to retreat and died from dysentery in Perpignan in 1285. His brother John Tristan, Count of Valois died first, on 3 August,[12] and on 25 August the King died. 30 juin 2016 - Donation de Philippe III le hardi 1 - Archives Nationales - K-35 n°9 - Philippe III le Hardi — Wikipédia [50] Despite strong resistance, Philip took Girona on 7 September 1285. [Gérard Sivéry] -- Fils de Saint Louis et père de Philippe le Bel, Philippe III (1245-1285) acquit le comté de Toulouse, le Poitou et … He was succeeded by his son Philip IV. [36] Ferdinand de la Cerda, the son of Alfonso X, arrived at Viana with an army. Philip the Bold (French: Philippe le Hardi, Dutch: Filips de Stoute; 17 January 1342 – 27 April 1404, Halle) was Duke of Burgundy (as Philip II) and jure uxoris Count of Flanders (as Philip II), Artois and Burgundy (as Philip IV). [51] Philip died of dysentery in Perpignan on 5 October 1285. In 1276 he declared war to support the claims of his nephews as heirs in Castile but soon abandoned the venture. Search for Library Items ... France Roi; Philippe, koning van Frankrijk; Philipp, Frankreich König III. At the same time, Alfonso sought papal approval for a marriage between one of his grandsons and Joan. He was a candidate for the imperial throne in 1273. [43] Pope Martin IV excommunicated Peter and declared his kingdom forfeit. [11] After taking Carthage, the army was struck by an epidemic of dysentery, which spared neither Philip nor his family. Be the first. Fils de Saint Louis et de Marguerite de Provence, Philippe III le Hardi a le malheur de succéder à un roi prestigieux et d'être finalement mal connu. [33] Philip's royal seneschal, Eustache de Beaumarchès, led a counter-attack into the County of Foix, until ordered by Philip to withdraw. The Brevis Chronicon of Saint-Denis records the birth "in festo apostolorum Philippi et Jacobi" in 1245 of "Philippus filius Ludovici regis". At the age of … King Philippe III invaded Aragon in early 1285 and briefly captured Girona 7 Sep 1285. [26] Upon his return to Paris 23 September 1271, Philip reenacted his father's order that Jews wear badges. The testament of "Philippes…Roy de France" is dated Dec 1285 and makes a bequest to "Blanche nostre suer", and also names "la Reine Isabelle jadis nostre demme". Publication date 1887 Topics Philip III, King of France, 1245-1285, France -- History Philip III, 1270-1285, France -- Kings and rulers Biography Publisher Paris : Hachette Collection robarts; toronto Digitizing sponsor University of Toronto Contributor Robarts - University of Toronto Language French. His funeral monument at St. Denis depicts a man with beardless, square-cut … Paris sous Philippe-le-Bel. Philippe III the Bold Capet of France was born 30 April 1245 in Poissy, Île-de-France, France to Louis IX Capet (1214-1270) and Marguerite de Provence (1221-1295) and died 5 October 1285 inPerpignan, Languedoc-Roussillon, France of unspecified causes. Philippe had a wife named Isabelle de Aragon and a child named Charles. Nevertheless, in 1279 he was obliged to cede the county of Agenais to Edward I of England. 2 Encyclopædia Britannica: Philip III, King of France. Philip was born in Poissy on 1 May 1245,[3] the second son of King Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence. [36] Philip saw a territorial gain, while Joan would have the military assistance to protect her kingdom. Born in Poissy, to Louis IX (the later Saint Louis) and Marguerite of Provence, Philip was prior to his accession Count of Orleans. His funeral monument at St Denis depicts a man with beardless, square-cut features, but lacking character and animation. Philippe III le Hardi. Première biographie de Philippe III depuis plus d'un siècle, cet ouvrage clôt la magnifique galerie des portraits du « siècle de Saint Louis » que l'auteur a mis plus de trente ans à composer. Philippe II le Hardi synonyms, Philippe II le Hardi pronunciation, Philippe II le Hardi translation, English dictionary definition of Philippe II le Hardi. PHILIP III. Philip, who was accompanying him, returned to France and was anointed king at Reims in 1271. The French fleet was destroyed and the King of France died during an epidemic in Perpignan (1285) to which he had retreated with his army. Philip crossed the Pyrenees with his army in May 1285, but the atrocities perpetrated by his forces provoked a guerrilla uprising. 1 Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, Medlands: Philippe de France. [Gérard Sivéry] Home. Philippe IV Roi de France. The marriage in 1284 of Philip’s son, the future Philip IV, to Joan, the heiress of the crown of Navarre and the countships of Champagne and Brie, brought these important areas also under Capetian control. (1245-1285), Spouses/Children: 1248–1271. [32], On 19 September 1271, Philip commanded the Seneschal of Toulouse to record oaths of loyalty from nobles and town councils. [31] Philip and his army arrived at Toulouse on 25 May 1272,[31] and on 1 June at Boulbonne met James I of Aragon, who attempted to mediate the issue, but this was rejected by Roger-Bernard. PARENTS AND SIBLINGS. [40], In 1282, King Peter III of Aragon invaded Sicily,[41] instigating the Sicilian Vespers rebellion against King Charles I of Naples,[42] Philip's uncle. Hallam states Philip gained his nickname sometime before 1300, due to his prowess in Tunis or Spain. [31] The following year, Roger-Bernard III, Count of Foix, invaded the County of Toulouse, killed several royal officials,[31] and captured the town of Sombuy. Philippe III, le hardi Dunbabin, Jean SHORTER NOTICES was subject to significant changes. [24] He followed in his father's footsteps concerning Jews in France,[25] claiming piety as his motivation. C'est le fils de Louis IX, plus connu sous le nom de Saint Louis, et de Marguerite de Provence.A la mort de son frère Louis en 1260, Philippe devient héritier du trône. [6] From that moment on, Pierre de la Broce, a royal favourite and household official of Louis IX, was Philip's mentor. PHILIPPE LE HARDI III AND IV PHILIPPE THE BEAUTIFUL ONE - COMMON CURRENCY (from 1280) (05/10/1285-29/11/1314) Born in 1245, eldest son of St. Louis, Philip III succeeded him at the age of twenty-five years. Infanta doña Isabel DE ARAGÓN. The necrology of the Leprosery at Sens records the death "VI Non Oct" of "Phylippus filius Ludovicus regi Francorum" at the castle of "Paripagniaus". He succeeded his father in 1270 as PHILIPPE III "le Hardi" King of France. Hommage à Aline Kiner, auteur de « La nuit des Béguines » - Duration: 1:34:07. Search. Prince Robert. The Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records the death in 1285 "apud Perpeigniacum" of "Philippus...rex Franciæ", the burial of his flesh and intestines "apud Narbonam in majori ecclesia" and the burial of his heart "fratres Prædicatores Parisius...in sua...ecclesia". 1. ... Philip III then organised an expedition to conquer Aragon but it soon failed. Philip III (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold (French: le Hardi), was King of France from 1270 to 1285, the tenth from the House of Capet.. Philip proved indecisive, soft in nature, and timid. [8], According to the terms of the Treaty of Corbeil (1258), concluded on 11 March 1258 between Louis IX and James I of Aragon,[9] Philip was married in 1262 to Isabella of Aragon in Clermont by the archbishop of Rouen, Eudes Rigaud. In addition Philip over the years made numerous small territorial acquisitions. This inheritance included a portion of Auvergne, later the Duchy of Auvergne and the Agenais. Philip quickly experienced a reversal, as an epidemic of dysentery hit the French camp[50] and afflicted Philip personally. The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis records the birth in 1245 "le premier mai, à la fête des apôtres Jacques et Philippe" of Philippe, son of Louis IX King of France. His father, Louis IX, died in Tunis during the Eighth Crusade. Mathieu de Vendôme, abbot of Saint-Denis, whom Louis IX had left as regent in France, remained in control of the government. n 1342–1404, duke of Burgundy , noted for his courage at Poitiers in the Hundred Years' War: regent of France for his nephew Charles VI . [31] Philip inherited Alphonse's lands and united them with the royal domain. Shortly before his departure, Louis IX had given the regency of the kingdom into the hands of Mathieu de Vendôme and Simon II, Count of Clermont, to whom he had also entrusted the royal seal. Philippe III dit le Hardi Roi en 1270, mort en 1285 âgé de 40 ans | Museum number 1875,0710.2735 | Philip III (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold (French: le Hardi), was the King of France, succeeding his father, Louis IX, and reigning from 1270 to 1285. [10], As Count of Orléans, Philip accompanied his father on the Eighth Crusade to Tunis in 1270. [14], Philip, only 25 years old and stricken with dysentery, was proclaimed king in Tunis. His attempt to conquer Aragon nearly bankrupted the French monarchy, causing financial challenges for his successor. 1245–1285. [63], In the Divine Comedy, the Italian poet Dante envisions the spirit of Philip outside the gates of Purgatory with a number of other contemporary European rulers. 1992-04-23: revised. In 1904 he published Manuel de bibliographie historique, 2 vol. [37] He largely continued his father's policies and left his father's administrators in place. [36] Henry's widow, Blanche of Artois, was also receiving marriage proposals for Joan from England and Aragon. [22] The new sovereign was crowned king of France in Reims on 15 August 1271. [18] He was followed in February by Philip's wife, Isabella, who fell off her horse while pregnant with their fifth child. Roy Philippe de France, III, "le Hardi" 1245 - 1285 (40 years) Has more than 100 ancestors and more than 100 descendants in this family tree. Philippe also married Marie DE BRABANT, daughter of Henri III DE BRABANT, Duke of Brabant, and Alix DE BOURGOGNE, on 21 Aug 1274 in Vincennes, Val-De-Marne, Paris, Ile-de-France. Related Subjects: (5) Philippe -- III -- (roi de France ; -- 1245-1285) Bourgogne (France) -- 1363-1404 (Philippe le Hardi) France -- 1270-1285 (Philippe III) Philippe III, roi de France, 1245-1285; France, 1270-1285 ; Confirm this request. [33] Philip then proceeded on a campaign to devastate and depopulate the County of Foix. His father, Louis IX, died in Tunis during the Eighth Crusade. Marriage: 28 May 1262. Home | Table of Contents | Surnames | Name List, This Web Site was Created 30 Nov 2015 with Legacy 4.0 from Millennia, Louis VIII "Cœur de Lion" CAPET King of France, Philippe III "le Hardi" CAPET, King of France, Philippe IV "le Bel" CAPET, King of France+, Charles CAPET, Comte de Valois et d' Alençon+, Born: 1 May 1245, Poissy, Yvelines, France, Married (1): 28 May 1262, Clermont-Ferrand, Puy-De-Dome, France, Married (2): 21 Aug 1274, Vincennes, Val-De-Marne, Paris, Ile-de-France, Died: 5 Oct 1285, Perpignan, Pyrenees-Orientales, France. [19] She died in Cozenza (Calabria). He succeeded his father in 1270 as PHILIPPE III "le Hardi" King of France. 1268–1314. In accordance with the wishes of Alphonse, Philip granted the Comtat Venaissin to Pope Gregory X in 1274. [50] By 26 June 1285, he had entrenched his army before Girona and besieged the city. Philip III (1 May 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold (French: le Hardi), was king of France from 1270 until his death in 1285. [36] Faced with an invading army and foreign proposals, Blanche sought assistance from her cousin, Philip. [39] Philip arrived in Bearn in November 1276 with another army, by which time Robert had pacified the situation and extracted oaths of homage from Navarrese nobles and castellans. On 28 May 1262, Philip married Isabella, daughter of King James I of Aragon and his second wife Yolande of Hungary. Charles, Count of Valois (12 March 1270 – 16 December 1325), This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 17:13. 1270–1325 . He married Isabella of Aragon (1247-1271) 28 May 1262 JL in Clermont-Ferrand, Auvergne, France. Learn about this topic in these articles: discussed in biography. (Isabel DE ARAGÓN was born in 1243 in Barcelona, Aragón, died on 28 Jan 1271 in Cosenza, Calabria and was buried in Saint Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis, France. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. [37] The Treaty of Orléans of 1275, between Philip and Blanche, arranged the marriage between a son of Philip (Louis or Philip) and Blanche's daughter, Joan. The Speculum historiali of Vincent de Beauvais records the birth in 1243 of "Ludovicus filiorum...Ludovici regis Franciæ primogenitus" and the birth "anno sequenti" of "ei secundus filius...Philippus". He was consecrated at Notre-Dame de Reims 15 Aug 1271. Philippe III, le Hardi, King of France, 1245-1285. Philippe married Infanta doña Isabel DE ARAGÓN, daughter of Jaime I "el Conquistador" PEDREZ King of Aragón, Valencia & Maljorca and Iolanda (Violante) ÁRPÁD Princess of Hungary, on 28 May 1262 in Clermont-Ferrand, Puy-De-Dome, France. Philip inherited numerous territorial lands during his reign, the most notable being the County of Toulouse, which was returned to the royal domain in 1271. [17], Other deaths followed this debacle. [38], In September 1276, Philip, faced with open rebellion, sent Robert II, Count of Artois to Pamplona with an army. [59] Their children were: During Philip's reign the royal domain expanded, acquiring the County of Guînes in 1281[62], the County of Toulouse in 1271, the County of Alençon in 1286, the Duchy of Auvergne in 1271, and through the marriage of his son Philip, the Kingdom of Navarre. He succeeded his uncle in Toulouse 1271. Born in Poissy, to Louis IX (the later Saint Louis) and Marguerite of Provence, Philip was prior to his accession Count of Orleans. One of the most powerful men of his day in France, he was for a time regent for his nephew Charles VI; and when Charles went insane, he became virtual ruler of France. [65], "Philippe III" redirects here. [20], Philip III arrived in Paris on 21 May 1271, and paid tribute to the deceased. He was a member of the House of Capet. Philip the Bold (French: Philippe le Hardi; Dutch: Filips de Stoute; 17 January 1342 – 27 April 1404) was Duke of Burgundy and jure uxoris Count of Flanders, Artois and Burgundy.He was the fourth and youngest son of King John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg. [30], On 21 August 1271, Philip's uncle, Alphonse, Count of Poitiers and Toulouse, died childless in Savona. Philip, who was accompanying him, returned to France and was anointed king at Reims in 1271. He succeeded his uncle in Toulouse 1271. Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (April 3, 1245 – October 5, 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. Philip III (30 Apr 1245 – 5 Oct 1285), called the Bold (French: le Hardi), was the King of France, succeeding his father, Louis IX, and reigning from 1270 to 1285. Langlois’s work Le Règne de Philippe III le Hardi (1887; “The Reign of Philip III the Bold”), emphasizing the political and institutional conditions of 13th-century France, remains one of the best histories of a single reign. Philip II, byname Philip the Bold, French Philippe le Hardi, (born Jan. 17, 1342, Pontoise, France—died April 27, 1404, Halle, Brabant), duke of Burgundy (1363–1404) and the youngest son of the French king John II the Good. Pedigree report of Roi Philippe III, "le Hardi" de Valois (de France) III, son of Roi Louis IX de France and Queen Marguerite de Provence, born on April 30th, 1245 in Poissy, Departement des Yvelines, Île-de-France, France. Philip III, byname Philip the Bold, French Philippe le Hardi, (born April 3, 1245, Poissy, Fr.—died Oct. 5, 1285, Perpignan), king of France (1270–85), in whose reign the power of the monarchy was enlarged and the royal domain extended, though his foreign policy and military ventures were largely unsuccessful. [35], Following the death of King Henry I of Navarre in 1274, Alfonso X of Castile attempted to gain the crown of Navarre from Henry's heiress, Joan. [48] His son, Philip the Fair, succeeded him as king of France. [44] Martin then granted Aragon to Philip's son, Charles, Count of Valois. Philippe III le Hardi (koning van Frankrijk ; 1245-1285) foaf: familyName foaf: givenName RDF/XML (MADS and SKOS) N-Triples (MADS and SKOS) JSON (MADS/RDF and SKOS/RDF) MADS - RDF/XML; MADS - N-Triples; MADS/RDF - JSON; SKOS - RDF/XML; SKOS - N-Triples; SKOS - JSON; MADS/XML; MARC/XML ; Subject Of Works Looking for related works... Contributor To … Following the Sicilian Vespers, Philip led the Aragonese Crusade in support of his uncle. 1269–1276. After a meaningless victory at Gerona and the destruction of his fleet at Las Hormigas, Philip was forced to retreat. Clermont Ferrand, Puy-de-Dome, Auvergne, France. [4] As a younger son, Philip was not expected to rule France. Similar Items. [50] Philippe III, né le 1er mai 1245 et mort en 1285, est le dixième roi de France de la dynastie des capétiens. With the Treaty of Orléans, he expanded French influence into the Kingdom of Navarre and following the death of his brother Peter during the Sicilian Vespers, the County of Alençon was returned to the crown lands. Otherness, when used to make a point, also depended on the respective intentions of the authors and the contexts in which arguments were used.