According to new polls about religiosity in the European Union in 2015 by Eurobarometer, Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union, accounting for 71.6% of the EU population. The Union has also established agencies to co-ordinate police, prosecutorial and immigrations controls across the member states: Europol for co-operation of police forces,[190] Eurojust for co-operation between prosecutors,[191] and Frontex for co-operation between border control authorities. [110][111] The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages ratified by most EU states provides general guidelines that states can follow to protect their linguistic heritage. [260], The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one of the long lasting policies of the European Community. Its members have a combined area of 4,233,255.3 km 2 (1,634,469.0 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 447 million. [288] A directive on cross-border healthcare aims at promoting co-operation on health care between member states and facilitating access to safe and high-quality cross-border healthcare for European patients. [303], The flag used is the Flag of Europe, which consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background. United in Diversity was adopted as the motto of the Union in the year 2000, having been selected from proposals submitted by school pupils. One of the 27 is the President of the European Commission (Ursula von der Leyen for 2019–2024), appointed by the European Council, subject to the Parliament's approval. The currency union represents 342 million EU citizens. Le Conseil européen fixe les orientations politiques globales de l'UE, mais il n'a pas le pouvoir d'adopter la législation. Both treaties came into force in 1958. Catholics are the largest Christian group, accounting for 45.3% of the EU population, while Protestants make up 11.1%, Eastern Orthodox make up 9.6%, and other Christians make up 5.6%. [215], Humanitarian aid is financed directly by the budget (70%) as part of the financial instruments for external action and also by the European Development Fund (30%). [293] In 2018, the EU region with the highest life expectancy was Madrid, Spain at 85.2 years, followed by the Spanish regions of La Rioja and Castilla y León both at 84.3 years, Trentino in Italy at 84.3 years and Île-de-France in France at 84.2 years. [24][25][26] In 2017, the EU emitted 9.1% of the global greenhouse gas emissions.[27]. [86], In 2010, 47.3 million people who lived in the EU were born outside their resident country. In 1957, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome, which created the European Economic Community (EEC) and established a customs union. L'Union européenne [Note 3] est une union politico-économique sui generis de vingt-sept États européens qui délèguent ou transmettent par traité l’exercice de certaines compétences à des organes communautaires[5],[6]. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (currently Josep Borrell) also takes part in its meetings. The Council of the European Union (also called the Council[150] and the "Council of Ministers", its former title)[151] forms one half of the EU's legislature. In an EU consisting of 27 members, substantial security and defence co-operation is increasingly relying on collaboration among all member states. [271] During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent. [88] 2.4 million immigrants from non-EU countries entered the EU in 2017. After much discussion, the most concrete result was the EU Battlegroups initiative, each of which is planned to be able to deploy quickly about 1500 personnel. The Council of Europe gave the flag a symbolic description in the following terms,[304] though the official symbolic description adopted by the EU omits the reference to the "Western world":[305]. [153], In the ordinary legislative procedure, the European Commission proposes legislation, which requires the joint approval of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union to pass. [118] Many countries have experienced falling church attendance and membership in recent years. In some areas the EU enjoys exclusive competence. p. 49. [158] The "EU as a global partner" and "citizenship, freedom, security and justice" bring up the rear with approximately 6% and 1% respectively.[158]. Mitigating climate change is one of the top priorities of EU environmental policy. In varietate concordiaOde à la joie • Journée de l'Europe, Cliquez sur « [+] » pour dérouler une catégorie, Suivi des modifications du portail > Suivi des modifications des articles de la catégorie Union européenne > Suivi des modifications de l'arborescence. the role of the EU in securing the ratification and coming into force of the Kyoto Protocol despite opposition from the United States. Esta imagem provém do Wikimedia Commons, um acervo de conteúdo livre da Wikimedia Foundation que pode ser utilizado por outros projetos.. para mais informações. [129] The lowest points in the EU are Lammefjorden, Denmark and Zuidplaspolder, Netherlands, at 7 m (23 ft) below sea level. Accordingly, the Union has legislated in areas such as extradition,[186] family law,[187] asylum law,[188] and criminal justice. [231], As a political entity the European Union is represented in the World Trade Organization (WTO). The Parliament is the final body to approve or reject the proposed membership of the commission, and can attempt motions of censure on the commission by appeal to the Court of Justice. In 2004, the EU saw its biggest enlargement to date when Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia joined the Union.[73]. The European Court of Auditors has signed off the European Union accounts every year since 2007 and, while making it clear that the European Commission has more work to do, has highlighted that most of the errors take place at national level. [266], The EU seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 6.7% in September 2018. La diversité de l’Union européenne comme richesse et source de complexité . [313], Media freedom is a fundamental right that applies to all member states of the European Union and its citizens, as defined in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights as well as the European Convention on Human Rights. In addition, the principle of subsidiarity requires that only those matters that need to be determined collectively are so determined. In other policy areas the EU can only co-ordinate, support and supplement member state action but cannot enact legislation with the aim of harmonising national laws.[167]. [148] It operates de facto as a cabinet government,[citation needed] with 27 Commissioners for different areas of policy, one from each member state, though Commissioners are bound to represent the interests of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. [203], The predecessors of the European Union were not devised as a military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufficient for defence purposes. In 1987 the European Political Cooperation was introduced on a formal basis by the Single European Act. Greece joined in 1981, Portugal and Spain following in 1986. Ce retrait faisait suite au référendum du 23 juin 2016 lors duquel 51,6% des électeurs britanniques ont voté en faveur du "Brexit" (British exit). In other areas the EU and its member states share the competence to legislate. In 2006, the EU-27 had a gross inland energy consumption of 1,825 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe). In 2007, member states agreed that, in the future, 20% of the energy used across the EU must be renewable, and carbon dioxide emissions have to be lower in 2020 by at least 20% compared to 1990 levels. C’est aussi une garantie de paix pour l’Europe, longtemps déchirée par des guerres. A European identity card, to be issued starting from 2 August 2021. The only institution empowered to propose legislation, serves as the "Guardian of the Treaties". Tout au long de la construction européenne, l'UE a reçu de plus en plus de compétences. The judicial branch of the EU—formally called the Court of Justice of the European Union—consists of two courts: the Court of Justice and the General Court. [272], Initially, EU environmental policy focused on Europe. Entrez vos coordonnées ci-dessous ou cliquez sur une icône pour vous connecter: There are six countries that are recognised as candidates for membership: Albania, Iceland, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Turkey,[124] though Iceland suspended negotiations in 2013. On 31 January 2020, the United Kingdom became the first member state to leave the EU. [222], The European Union is the largest exporter in the world[226] and as of 2008 the largest importer of goods and services. This co-operation had to particularly be developed with the advent of open borders through the Schengen Agreement and the associated cross border crime. [216][217], In 2016, the average among EU countries was 0.4% and five had met or exceeded the 0.7% target: Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Sweden and the United Kingdom. It consists of an, EU-Armenia Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement. Article plus récent Article plus ancien Accueil. The European Day of Languages is held annually on 26 September and is aimed at encouraging language learning across Europe. Cette réalité cache néanmoins des disparités et des contrastes que les institutions de l’Union européenne tentent de régler. [289][290][291], The EU has some of the highest levels of life expectancy in the world, with Spain, Italy, Sweden, France, Malta, Ireland, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Greece all among the world's top 20 countries with the highest life expectancy. [91], The European Union has 24 official languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, and Swedish. In 1960, the budget of the then European Economic Community was 0.03% of GDP. and Corcelle, G. (1989) The Environmental Policy of the European Communities, Graham & Trotman, London, Cases C-403/08 and C-429/08, Opinion of Advocate General Kokott, para 207, Riché, Preface xviii, Pierre Riché reflects: "[H]e enjoyed an exceptional destiny, and by the length of his reign, by his conquests, legislation and legendary stature, he also profoundly marked the history of Western Europe.